James Gobble

3-4

Early Battles Of WWI

BATTLE OF HELIGOLAND- In August 1914 before the U.S. showed any signs of entering the war Admiral Sir David Beatty made a plan to draw the German Navy into a major sea battle. Beatty used the Fearless and the Arethusa, two light cruisers, and 25 destroyers to raid German ships close to the German naval base at Heligoland. When the German Navy responded to the attack, Beatty brought forward the New Zealand and Invincible and three battlecruisers. In the battle that followed, the Germans lost three German cruisers and a destroyer. The only British ship to be damaged was the Arethusa but was towed home to safety.

 

ISONZO OFFENSIVE-In the spring of 1915 after the Battle of Heligoland General Luigi Cadorna, the chief of staff of the Italian Army, had 25 infantry and 4 cavalry divisions. Grouped into four armies, Cadorna only had 120 heavy and medium artillery pieces and 700 machine guns. Cadorna launched mass attacks on Austria-Hungary in June 1915, even though he didnít have a lot of artillery.

The defending army quickly built trenches and the Italians suffered heavy casualties. In the first two weeks of the Isonzo Offensive, the Italian Army lost 60,000 men. Although Cadorna had a larger force, he was unlikely to win against machine-guns. By the time the attacks were called off that winter, Italian casualties had reached 300,000. Cadorna also lost 3,000 field guns, which reduced his chances of carrying out a successful offensive during the next few months.